Old Testament has many prophecies of a Messiah who would be
king in Israel. It tells of his birth, his ancestry, his life
and his death, as well as his eternal reign as king. In this
chapter, we look at the Old Testament prophecies that Jesus
Fulfilled before he went to heaven. The apostles used these
prophecies to show that Jesus is the Messiah.
This psalm was a prayer of David as he suffered from the continual
attacks of his enemies. It is also prophetic of the ircumstances
of Jesus at his crucifixion, and is quoted several times in
1. List the places where this Psalm is directly quoted
2. List the places where this Psalm refers to the crucifixion,
but is not directly quoted.
3. Are there any verses that could not refer to the circumstances
of Jesus’ crucifixion?
His life foretold
Many events in Jesus’ life were predicted in the Old
Testament. Here is a selection.
• He would come from the tribe of Judah. “The
scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s
staff from between his feet, Fulfilled: Luke 3:33 until he comes to
whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is
his.” (Genesis 49:10)
• He would be a descendant of David. “When your
days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise
up your offspring to succeed you, who will
come from your own body, Fulfilled: Matthew 1:6,16 and I will establish his kingdom.
He is the one who will build a house for
my Name, and I will establish the throne of his
kingdom forever.” (2 Samuel 7:12–13)
|Genesis 3:15; 49:10; Deuteronomy 18:15–19.
Son of David
|2 Samuel 7:12–16; Isaiah 11:1–2; Ezekiel 37:24–28; Luke 1:30–33.
Son of Abraham
|Genesis 22:15–18; Galatians 3:16.
|2; 8; 16; 22; 69; 110; 118:22.
|7:14; 9:1–2,6–7; 11; 42; 49; 53; 61.
|Jeremiah 23:5–6; Daniel 7:9–14; 9; Micah 5:2; Zec. 9:9; 12:10; 14:3–4.
He would be born in Bethlehem.
“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah,
though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you
will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from
of old, from ancient times.” (Micah 5:2)
Fulfilled: Matthew 2:4–6
• He would be born of a virgin.
Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son,
and will call him Immanuel.” (Isaiah 7:14)
Fulfilled: Matthew 1:18
• He would live in Galilee.
will be no more gloom for those who were in distress. In the
past he humbled the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali,
but in the future he will honor Galilee of the Gentiles, by
the way of the sea, along the Jordan— The people walking
in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned.” (Isaiah
Fulfilled: Matthew 4:12–16
• He would be rejected.
“He was despised and
rejected by men, a man of sorrows, and familiar with suffering.
Like one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed
him not.” (Isaiah 53:3)
Fulfilled: John 1:11
• He would enter Jerusalem riding on a donkey.
greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem!
See, your king comes to you, righteous and
having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt,
the foal of a donkey.” (Zechariah 9:9)
Fulfilled: John 12:13–15
Pointers to Jesus
|Not only are there direct prophecies of Jesus, there are numerous “types” that point forward to him. For example, at the feast of Passover, a lamb in perfect condition had to be killed (Exodus 12:3–6). This represented the sacrifice of Jesus, the “Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29). Some people were also types of Jesus. For example, Abraham was told to o?er his son Isaac as a sacrifice on Mt Moriah near Jerusalem, just as God o?ered his son as a sacrifice near Jerusalem. What other types of Christ can you think of?
• He would be executed.
“He was oppressed and
afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a
lamb to the slaughter, and Fulfilled: Matthew as a sheep before
her shearers is silent, so he did not 27:12–14 open
his mouth. By oppression and judgment he was taken away. And
who can speak of his descendants? For he was cut off from
the land of the living; for the transgression of my people he was stricken.”
• He would be crucified.
“Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has
encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my Fulfilled:
Matthew feet.” (Psalm 22:16) 27:38
• People would cast lots for his clothes.
“They divide my garments among them and cast lots
for my clothing.” (Psalm 22:18) Fulfilled: John 19:23–24
• He would be raised from the dead.
“. . . because you will not abandon me to the grave,
nor will you let your Holy One see decay.” Fulfilled:
Matthew (Psalm 16:10) 28:5–9
There are many others. See if you can find some of them.
1. Read Matthew 1:18 – 3:3. List the prophecies that
quoted and read each of the passages. If you were living at
the time of Jesus’ birth, how many of these prophecies
Jesus would you have identi?ed? Is Matthew interpreting
the Old Testament properly?
2. Isaiah 53 is a famous prophecy about the suffering and
death of Jesus. However, Jews interpret the prophecy as
referring to Israel, the nation. How would you answer this
1. Read through the speeches of Paul and Peter in Acts
2, 3 and 13, and list the Old Testament prophecies that they
used to prove that Jesus was the Messiah.
2. One prophecy that is not quoted in the New Testament
is Daniel 9:25–27. It describes the Messiah (Anointed
One) being “cut off” 69 ‘weeks’ after
the decree to rebuild Jerusalem. Each day of the ‘weeks’
represents one year. So 69 weeks is 69×7 = 483 years.
Find out about when the decree was made and how this prophecy
was Fulfilled at precisely the time predicted.
3. [Harder] Some prophecies of Jesus are quoted in the
New Testament, but are difficult to find in the Old Testament.
Read Matthew 2:23. Where is the prophecy of the “Nazarene”?
Read Luke 24:45–47. Where is the prophecy that Jesus
would rise from the dead on the third day?
• Christ in the Old Testament by Harry Tennant (published
by The Christadelphian). 15 pages.
• New Testament fulfilment of Old Testament prophecies
by Abram Kenneth Abraham (published by Barbour Books, 1988).
• This is that by F.F. Bruce (published by The Paternoster
Press, 1968). 122 pages.
• BB Study 7.1
1. God’s inspired word
2. Reasons to believe the Bible
31. Jesus as Messiah
32. Jesus: Son of God and Son of Man
40. God’s promises to Abraham and David
45. The kingdom of God